What are Bitcoin Covenants?


As far as I can tell, you’ve already heard of the phrase “cryptocurrency.” It is a well-known fact that virtual currencies have rapidly gained popularity all over the world, particularly in recent decades, because there are plenty of strong reasons in support for this phenomenon. Who doesn’t want to earn money while kicking their feet up on the couch in the comfort of their own home with the simple snap of a button? It is common knowledge that the marketplace for cryptocurrencies is highly profitable, and a significant number of people have amassed significant wealth as a direct result of all of this activity.

Talking of cryptocurrency, we all know BTC or bitcoin is the first ever cryptocurrency that came into being. Bitcoin is a sort of digital currency that was created with the primary intention of performing the functions of money and a method of payment. This fundamental operation of bitcoin is made possible by the effective utilization of a broad range of different monetary smart contracts, all of which are executed in a way that is entirely decentralized.

For the benefit of those who are unfamiliar with the concept, “smart contacts” are just computer programs that are archived on the public BTC ledger and are activated automatically when certain criteria are satisfied. They are often used to streamline the fulfillment of an arrangement so that all parties involved may be instantly confident of the results.

This eliminates the need for any intermediatory party and prevents any waste of time as a result of their participation. Nevertheless, a portion of its strength stems from the fact that such operations make use of a scripting language that is both adaptable and versatile to set redemption requirements.

The use of smart contact technology guarantees that transactions that meet the redemption conditions are only allowed to uncover the hidden reward it possesses. Bitcoin’s scripting module allows the implementation of the convention inside the monetary system inherently, in contrast to the conventional methods of financial contracting, which solely depend on confidence and on the ability to execute agreements. In addition, given the current process, there is still a level of uncertainty over how dishonest people exploit the Bitcoin system.

Because of this, developers in the cryptocurrency space have been mulling over potential solutions for the problem using Bitcoin covenants which are aimed to make the cryptocurrency more secure, economical, and sustainable. Though the evolution of a BTC covenant is a controversial topic and there is a lot of debate around it, there are significant advantages it possesses too.

But how precisely do BTC convent function, what significant issue are they attempting to address, and what drawbacks do they incur? These are only some of the things that you will learn as you continue reading, but before we get to that, let’s initially provide an explanation of what a Bitcoin covenant is.

What are Bitcoin Covenants?

You may be familiar with the word “covenants” from a physical world setting. Covenants are often used by individuals in the real world to refer to a certain form of agreement or contract between two parties.

For instance, private business owners may regulate how their land is used by establishing covenants. The owner of a building may compel the purchaser to adhere to a covenant that prohibits the tenants from coloring the structure’s interior or exterior a certain color or modifying historical elements of the inside as per their liking. Covenants are used by owners to impose certain restrictions on their legal investments to ensure the safety of their assets while they are being used by other individuals for whatsoever reasons.

Bitcoin covenants operate in a manner that is analogous to how covenants in the real world operate. They are script systems that place limitations on consumers’ ability to spend money in certain ways. Bitcoin covenants may also be seen as a group of suggested modifications toward the consensus rules. Given that Bitcoin also falls under the category of privately owned property, the use of covenants seems to be a natural match for putting limitations on activities. In other sayings, a user may retain Bitcoin for as long as they like, but there may be restrictions placed on the way they hold them due to covenants.

Consider Bitcoin covenants to be a kind of software-based access control system that serves the function of restricting specific actions and setting limits wherever they are necessary. A user, for example, may choose to impose a covenant onto his existing Bitcoin wallet and, as a result, select how precisely it will work and to which addresses it will let money transactions be made. The owner of the wallet would be able to use Covenant to approve a few addresses for use in transactions, and thus, the wallet itself would only be able to send Bitcoin to the locations for which it has been granted permission in the first place.

In the area of private ownership legislation, a contract known as a covenant is utilized to place limitations on the use of an item. These limitations can include the prohibition against extending or modifying a structure in any way as just understood. Because Bitcoin is considered to be privately owned property, the expression “covenant” appears to be the most appropriate one to use when referring to restrictions placed on its transaction data. Even if you are the owner of the asset, your options for how to use it may be restricted.

Particularly, Bitcoin covenant ideas limit where currencies may be moved to after they have been purchased as well as how a coin could be used after it has been purchased. These constraints are comparable to the ones that banks could impose on certain retailers if they have reason to believe that they are involved in some sort of illegal activity.

However, due to the fact that they are difficult to implement and spark controversy regarding the fungibility as well as the censorship-resistant real estate of the cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, covenants have not yet been actually considered for incorporation into Bitcoin for very a great many years. Even though they could help improve Bitcoin, they still have a long way to go until they become globally accepted and recognized.

How Are Bitcoin Covenants Utilized?

A number of individuals understand the Bitcoin covenant to be a protocol that, in the long run, would regulate the manner in which bitcoins are transferred. The Bitcoin covenant is a set of economic conditions that define how relevant coins may be spent in the event that a certain unforeseeable occurrence occurs. For example, a single wallet has the power to impose a covenant on the Bitcoin that it maintains by only permitting a certain set of connected addresses.

This may be done by authorizing all of the linked addresses at once. When a wallet requests a payment gateway to another account that hasn’t been previously approved, it’s possible that the first wallet won’t be able to complete the transaction of bitcoin to the new wallet that hasn’t been authorized, no matter how many times it tries to do so.

Bitcoin’s scripting system was expanded with the introduction of something called a covenant, and this new feature brought with it new responsibilities, and the concept of “script lock” also came into existence. Your Bitcoin is protected at all times inside a standard Bitcoin exchange by software that locks it. This suggests that in order to spend your virtual money on the blockchain, it must first and foremost fulfill a set of conditions that have been compiled beforehand. After it has satisfied those requirements, the business transaction will then be able to go through.

Another kind of locking technique is called a timelock, and it operates in a manner that is similar to that of covenants in the sense that it demonstrates that coins cannot be spent until an additional defined number of nodes has passed. One other instance of a holding scenario is the rejection of capital when it is without the required signature to demonstrate that the private key is similar to the public key.

It has been claimed that Bitcoin covenants might be used in a wide range of scenarios, some of which include improving the transaction capacity of Bitcoin, providing trust-minimized payments, and regulating congestion, amongst other purposes. The major goal is to simultaneously increase Bitcoin’s accessibility, durability, and dependability.

Other secondary goals include restricting the amount of BTC addresses that are allowed on whitelists. As a result, after a consumer has purchased Bitcoin, there is a possibility that they may be limited on how they can use that Bitcoin and how they can transfer it as a result of the primarily suggested covenants.

Benefits of Bitcoin Covenants

The developers of Bitcoin are continually working to enhance both the cryptocurrency’s security and its capacity to scale, and covenants may assist them in achieving this objective. In addition to boosting manageability, the use of covenants may also increase security, particularly when it comes to preventing attacks such as the $5 wrench assault.

These so-called $5 wrench assaults are directed at those who are known to handle significant amounts of cryptocurrency. The attackers may physically harm their targets or attempt to blackmail them into handing up their private keys. After all, it is simpler for misguided fools to conduct physical assaults rather than attempting to hack into someone else’s cryptocurrency wallet.

The enhancement of Bitcoin’s integrity is among the most important achievements that engineers strive for on an ongoing basis, and covenants may provide a substantial assisting hand in this respect. Nevertheless, certain additional benefits come with using Bitcoin covenants. Let’s shed some insight into the situation, shall we?

It is well-known that covenants contribute significantly to the safety of Bitcoin transactions. When you take additional precautions to secure your Bitcoin holdings and resources, it becomes much more difficult for thieves and cybercriminals to steal your cryptocurrency. After a certain amount of time has passed, preventing unexpended transaction output (UTXO) from becoming transferred to a multi-sig address might be considered a valuable security measure that is offered by covenants.

In addition, covenants may handle the issue of cryptographic keys administration and construct safe repositories, which can assist with one of the most significant challenges posed by cryptocurrency protection. These are both potentially workable solutions to note.

A user may likewise apply the Bitcoin covenant to prohibit an intruder from getting complete control over assets, regardless of the fact that the attacker has stolen the private keys that were used to protect the cash. A temporal lock may be enforced on money through the use of this approach, which involves its use of pre-signed operations with key deletion.

These most recent covenants may be used to create channel workshops for Lightning, which will allow you to open, close, and alter a large number of channels in one transaction instead of needing a separate UTXO for each channel alteration.

Advantages in terms of fees and scalability may be derived from this to some degree. Additionally, it could be possible for it to support highly denser batch operations, in which several transactions are consolidated into a singular one, and then, once the pool becomes less crowded, it is expanded farther out, and the individual transactions are processed quicker.

Last but not least, such agreements may also be used to build a stringent method to avoid double-spending exploits in Bitcoin-NG, which is a new fault-tolerant ledger technology that was previously proposed to maximize the performance, and fundamental scalability of Bitcoin.

Negative Consequences of Bitcoin Covenants

There are a number of notable Bitcoin experts, such as Adam Back and Andreas Antonopoulos, who have voiced some concerns about the application of these blockchain covenants, and while it is true that this is a particularly controversial topic, it is also true that there is a lot of room for debate on the subject.

Antonopoulos is particularly concerned about the possibility that the newly implemented upgrade and the repeated covenants would damage the network. When a developer places a limitation on a transaction with the intention of having that limitation apply to another operation, later on, this creates what is known as a recursive covenant.

This limitation sets off a domino effect, which will be followed by an unlimited number of recursive covenants, one following the other. Because of this worry, we may now discuss some of the drawbacks associated with Bitcoin covenants.

High Threat of Censorship and Blacklisting

Although restricting the places where Bitcoins may be spent offers the benefit of increased safety, doing so also opens the door to regulation and surveillance by states, both of which will be detrimental to the future survival of Bitcoin. Exchanges might be forced by the governments to withdraw their funds exclusively into agreements that have some degree of control over the currency.

Dangers Posed by Fungibility

The fungibility of Bitcoin, or the capacity within each Bitcoin to operate and perform the same way as every other Bitcoin, might be compromised by covenants. Covenants will indeed alter the characteristics of particular Bitcoin components, attempting to create different types of online currency that are distinguishable based on how they will be spent and where they will be transferred.

Although beneficial for protection and manageability, covenants will impact the structure of particular Bitcoin units and would thereby restrict Bitcoin’s usage as a cryptocurrency, inevitably influencing its profitability and worth.

Excessive Computation

Another issue that has to be addressed is the issue of wasteful processing, which occurs when programs do more actions than the bare minimum required for a customer to be entitled to purchase or sell their Bitcoin. Bitcoin currently permits the use of more complicated scripts, which makes it possible to create contracts; nevertheless, dishonest parties may misuse this feature.

Due to operations that need an excessive amount of CPU or storage, the coinage has been exposed to the possibility of denial-of-service attacks (DOS), which is again a major drawback when it comes to processing the heavy covenant units.


Covenants have the potential to seem abstract or superfluous to those who are not familiar with them. But they have been studied for a long time and have been found to be useful when used in the right way. But there are dangers to think about, just as there are with anything else. However, heated arguments may be a productive method to identify potential dangers to the decentralized and ungovernable ecosystem that Bitcoin provides.

Although many different kinds of covenants have been certainly suggested over the years, their overarching objective has been the same: to make Bitcoin contracts more descriptive, to strengthen security inside the community, and to do so without compromising the straightforward nature of the UTXO architecture. In the end, covenants may play a significant role in improving and transforming the way the organization runs for the bitcoin that has the world’s highest market value.

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